Bacteria in the mouth feed on the sugars in food and drinks. These bacteria produce acid, which damages the outer surface of the tooth (the enamel). Saliva helps repair this damage, but if more damage occurs over time than is repaired, it leaves a cavity or “hole” in the tooth. It is necessary to intensify education and awareness-raising programs on oral health among the population, with emphasis on the prevention of dental caries and the early presentation of dental treatment in order to prevent premature tooth loss in children and adolescents.
Predecessors with vital pulps are the context of the normal eruption of permanent teeth and inflammation of the primary dental pulp and penetration into the surroundings can influence the dental germ of the permanent successor and the periradicular structures if surgery is not initiated, which can cause abnormal development and eruption of the successor28, such as premature, delayed or ectopic eruption of the permanent tooth (Fig. Overretained primary teeth refer to the condition in which the primary tooth is still preserved after the successor has emerged. On the other hand, it can also cause the loss of occlusal stops and vertical dimensions, which causes a deep overbite and an increase in the overjet. Hyperdontia is an additional tooth, teeth, or tooth-like structures that have erupted or remain unerupted, in addition to the normal number of teeth.
In some subjects, where the roots are absorbed or there are periapical lesions, severe pathogenic bone destruction and a detrimental impact on the development or eruption of the successors, there is no choice but to extract the affected primary tooth. According to orthodontists, 30 percent of their cases are caused by premature loss of baby teeth. Prevalence of primary traumatic dental injuries among children in a large industrial center in the Russian Federation. Multiple factors influence the constant demineralization and remineralization of tooth enamel, such as bacteria (especially Streptococcus mutans), sugar (but not sugar substitutes), saliva and fluoride, whose imbalance can cause tooth decay.
Premature tooth loss in children can have devastating effects, such as the deterioration of aesthetics and function, mesial and distal drifts of adjacent teeth that cause the crowding and impact of permanent successors, and other forms of malocclusion. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) defines early childhood tooth decay (ECC) as the presence of one or more tooth surfaces that are decayed (not cavited or cavited), absent (as a result of cavities), or filled on any primary tooth of a child aged 71 months or younger. In addition, the fluoride in toothpaste can strengthen the exposed outer enamel of a child's teeth and help prevent tooth decay. The onset of an ectopic eruption of the first permanent maxillary molar (SEM) is mainly due to the discrepancy between the space required and the space available.
Otherwise, the case can be carefully controlled to extract the supernumerary tooth once the successor has completed root development.